Diabetes mellitus (DM), a complicated metabolic disease, is one of the most harmful chronic disorders and causes of death in modern society. Renal functions are significantly altered in patients with DM. This book illustrates the effect of diabetes and the use of NSAIDs (Celecoxib and Aspirin) on the kidney and urinary bladder functions. Experimental diabetes was induced by injecting rats with streptozotocin. The results showed that Celecoxib or Aspirin could improve the nephropathy and bladder dysfunction induced by diabetes.