The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by EDTA versus Citric acid at the apical third of the root canals. There have been various chelating agents utilised in Endodontics, apart from smear layer removing properties , a good chelating agent should be atleast biocompatible as practically it is almost impossible to confine the chelating agent within the apical constriction. Therefore there is always a search for a chelating agent which is biocompatible and efficient at the same time.Groups of specimes were treated with Edta, Citric acid and Saline respectively.Specimens were prepared for evaluation of the smeaar layer under the scanning electron microscope. Photomicrographs were obtained. The smear layer was rated based on the standard rating system at the apical third of the root canals.Edta is widely used as a chelating agent.The present research is focused on the chelating agents Edta and Citric acid. As mentioned earlier that a chelating agent should be biocompatible apart from being efficient , therefore the present study targets on a chelating agent which is both efficient and biocompatible.