The highest rates of child mortality are still in the sub-Saharan Africa, where 1 in 8 children dies before the age of five. The leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa are infectious diseases of which fever is a common feature. More importantly, is the fact that Nigeria is an endemic zone for malaria. For decades, fever had served as the entry point for presumptive treatment of malaria in African children, who if left untreated run the risk of severe complications and death. Decisions about whether to take action and which actions to take are often based on a lot of factors and not necessarily on scientific data. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of fever has been the cornerstone of malaria control but this depends on the early recognition of the disease, and subsequently the health-seeking behaviour of the child’s mother/caregiver.