Crop root capture studies are rare especially under field conditions because of the limitations associated with root sampling, preparation and analysis. Since roots are the agents of both water and nutrient uptake their activities are crucial. So, understanding the relationship between root traits and water and nitrogen uptake is required for effective management. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to quantify the response of root and shoot growth, root-shoot partitioning and water and nitrogen use efficiency by wheat and barley crops. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: 1. To study the interactive effects of water and nitrogen on shoot and root traits of wheat and barley; 2. To identify the crop trait(s) that improve crop water use and nitrogen capture; and 3. To evaluate the impact of rooting traits on above-ground growth and grain productivity under different water and nitrogen levels.