Effect of various tillage practices on soil Physical properties, root growth and yield of wheat - maize rotation were studied during 1996 - 99 at NWFP Agricultural University Research Farm, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tillage implements were used in the experiments moldboard plow, disk plow, disk harrow, rotavator and cultivator. Lowest average bulk density and soil strength of 1.46, 1.57 g/cm3 and 62.9, 121 N/cm2 respectively were recorded in deep tillage plots while the highest of 1.52, 1.62 g/cm3 and 75.6, 140.7 N/cm2 respectively were found in shallow tillage plots for two depths (i.e. 0 - 21 and 22 - 42 cm). Significantly higher root length and dry root weight of wheat were found in deep tillage (moldboard plow and rotavator once, M1R1) and the minimum root length and dry root weight were recorded in the shallow tillage (C2). Highest grain yield of wheat and maize (4422 and 4827 kg/ha) were found in the deep tillage (M1R1) while the lowest (3806 and 3966 kg/ha) were noted in the shallow tillage (C2). In general, deep tillage improved the soil physical conditions. Therefore, it is recommended for optimum yield of wheat and maize under irrigated clay loam soil condition.