Female reproductive health is an issue of political and economic concern, especially in Nigeria, due to the high incidence of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Over one-third of the population in developing countries lack access to essential medicines. Hydro-alcoholic formulations of Xylopia aethiopica compared with the conventional alcoholic/aqueous formulations effect on reproductive physiology in females and its cardiovascular, haematological, neurobiology, and biochemical activities has been studied in the female Wistar rats. The traditional uses of Xylopia aethiopica include as postpartum tonic to relieve delivery pains, inflammation, heal after-birth wounds, increase menstrual blood flow and to terminate unwanted pregnancy. But there is no thorough scientific investigation on most of the claims made by the traditional medicine practitioners on the use of Xylopia aethiopica in reproductive health care despite its use. Therefore this book provides information about contraceptive and abortifacient effect of Xylopia aethiopica which is of plant origin. It will provide knowledge about the active principles of Xylopia aethiopica preparations which is not well defined.