Effective criminal legal aid is crucial for access to justice of poor people and for the interest of justice. Poor people who are in conflict with criminal law are left with no help in the criminal justice system around the world. Poor or inexistence of criminal legal aid results into unnecessary imprisonment or unfair sentencing and prolonged pre trial detention. This book looks at effectiveness of criminal legal aid systems of the three Countries which are Tanzania, England and South Africa. It starts by looking at international human rights laws, regional human rights instruments and it goes down into comparing the three countries by looking at their established laws on criminal legal aid and best practices. At the end it offers ideas and suggestions that add value to the reform of criminal legal aid to make it more effective, real, exist where it does not exist, reliable and accessible.