A few years after defects in the mortgage market became apparent to the public, in July 2007, the financial system lay in shatters. Four out of the five biggest US commercial banks, holding over half of all deposits, were in different stages of bankruptcy or on the edge of it and with negative equity value. The biggest investment banks disappeared or changed into bank holding companies, and numerous multinational corporations were eager for government support. These events provide enormous investment opportunities and especially in the most affected sector. The task of this thesis is to analyze the current situation, and identify market opportunities among financial institutions. It aims to serve as a practical guide to investment decisions in the United States and in the Czech Republic. The big picture of macroeconomic environment must be also extensively discussed, as it has a pivotal power under current market conditions. The few survivals of this crisis are not only likely to emerge stronger, but a future and more concentrated market may give them substantial competitive advantage over other industries.