Unlike developed countries, lack of financial and mechanical resources and abortive institutional structures in developing countries lead to the failure of most of the environmental development projects. One such example is wastewater management projects. Wastewater management is still in its early stages in Lebanon like many other developing countries due to the nonoperational wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater is either discharged into sea, rivers or on open lands without treatment. Also, the the absence of effective wastewater management practices and delay in implementation has led the local communities to plan and implement their own arrangements for effective wastewater treatment facilities. This, however, raise a crucial question about the effectiveness of these facilities. This book aims to assess the effectiveness of existing wastewater treatment systems by testing effluent quality of the treated wastewater discharge, taking Chouf Caza in Lebanon as an example. Furthermore, the discussion comprehends the applicability of the potential wastewater treatment systems for small dispersed rural communities by analyzing and discussing the results.