Based on general definitions of culture, strategy and their interdependence the authoress goes into detail on the economic, social, historical and cultural background of Japan and the EU. Ancient tradition and globalization interlace in Japan. Global strategies of Japanese companies on the example of the Kyoto-Model, the influence of Keiretsu on the Japanese market and Gemba Kaizen are explained in detail. An online survey and expert interviews as well as five case studies on top global companies of Japan and their economic and strategic development from times of crisis to renewed success demonstrate in detail the extent of influence of existing cultural differences on strategic thinking and management strategies in business relationships. To bridge cultural gaps in business transactions, the authoress developed management guidelines for Japanese and EU companies. Culture, strategic thinking and strategic management are not separate thought forms, but are interlaced. They must be seen within a context to develop successful national and global strategies in the future and to be able to cooperate with a Japanese or EU business partner.