Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is home for 67% of HIV- infected individuals, 68% of new HIV infections and 72% of AIDS-related deaths. Up to 80% of infected adults remain undiagnosed and lack access to adequate prevention, treatment, care and support services. Although the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased rapidly to reach over three million people in low- and middle-income countries, coverage remains at about 44% of people in need of it. Furthermore, high attrition rates (20-30% loss to follow up) are reported within HIV/AIDS care programs. It is therefore critical to study, analyse and implement strategies to improve efficiency of HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in the region. This book addresses challenges in HIV diagnosis, linkage and retention in comprehensive HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs, and clinical-biomedical research to maximise clinical and immunological outcomes of HIV treatment. We target local and international clinicians, scientists, investors and donors that are interested in combating HIV/AIDS within the unique socio-cultural, economic and health care delivery context in SSA.