EFL TEACHER COGNITION provides a detailed insight into the beliefs held by four experienced young learner teachers. The study took place at International House Sabadell in Spain. The results of the study are presented as individual in-depth case studies of each teacher, examining the origin of their cognitions regarding the teaching of young learners, the relation of their cognitions to young learner teaching and the tensions which exist between these cognitions and their actual classroom practice. The data are also examined from the viewpoint of vocabulary teaching in the young learner classroom, detailing the presentation and practice of lexical items while examining the underlying beliefs which influenced the teachers' pedagogical decisions. The four case studies are compared to investigate possible similarities among the cognitions of the four teachers regarding EFL young learner teaching, their classroom practices and resulting tensions between both. The tensions emerging between cognitions and classoom practice are examined and their implications discussed. These tensions provide a valuable insight for young learner EFL teachers and teacher trainers alike.