This thesis examines the effects of government initiatives to regulate the impact of the two forces: roads and population pressure, which contribute to deterioration of the environment in Tanzania. In Tanzania environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being widely practised as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with development and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigation measures. The object of this thesis is to draw attention to the limitations of the project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) with regard to contributing to sustainable development within the planning process. First it is documented that barriers for the effective operation of the EIA system, are found within the implementation of rules, laws and regulations relevant to EIA in the Road Sector in Tanzania. After documenting the extent of these challenges light is shed on barriers found within the implementation of criteria for reaching set EIA goals in the Road Sector. Finally, the attitudes of the professionals in the EIA system are documented to have an impact on the effective operation of the system.