This study is to assess the relationship between social control/feelings of personal control and functional health status among older adults in rural and urban Taiwan. The Social Control on Health Practice and Psychological Distress model was used as the conceptual model and guiding framework for this study. The most significant findings from this research included: 1. Location of residence has an influence on older adults’ functional health status; 2. Older adults in urban areas of Taiwan were more likely to engage in positive health practices than older adults who lived in rural areas of Taiwan; 3. Both social control and personal control had significant effects on functional health status; 4.Both social control and personal control had significant effect on psychological distress; and 5. Personal control is the most important predictor of older adults’ functional health status in Taiwan.