Dental disease remains a significant problem in the world, particularly in Ethiopia. The vast majority of the population suffering from the consequences of this disease at some stage in their lives. It can result in acute pain, aesthetic problems and can increase the risk of tooth loss, which may have long-term effects on food intake resulting in impaired nutritional status and subsequent overall well being. For an electrochemical mechanism to be involved in the formation of caries there must be a source of electric driving potential, which could result in short circuiting. This short circuiting could cause tooth deterioration which means an electric current produced degrade the quality of dental enamel. The beneficial effects of the fluoride from dentifrices, drinking water, and clinical application for the prevention of caries are well-known. The study of electrochemical properties of tooth must lead to a viable and convenient revolution of oral medicine. Hence this material is all about electrochemical phenomenon takes place in oral environment resulting in teeth caries and its protection mechanisms.