Compton effect is one of the interactions between an incident radiation and electron in the target atom. Compton scattering is the predominant mode of interaction in the incident energy range from 0.1 to 1 MeV. This technique measures one dimensional momentum distribution and thereby information on the electron wave functions is obtained. Experimentally Compton profiles measure the projection of electron momentum distribution on a line and hence provide considerable complimentary information on the basic aspects of physics and practical applications in industry and technology. Systematic and accurate experimental Compton profile data of some high Z and rare earth elements are presented in this book. The book is divided into five chapters including introduction, theoretical resume on Compton profiles, experimental procedure, results and discussion, and conclusions.