Trace element malnutrition is reported to be the biggest cause of death for children in developing countries. Malnutrition normally occurs when the essential elements are not sufficient to fulfil the need of the body to develop and function normally. Fe and Zn deficiency are the type of malnutrition which mostly occurs in the countries which depend on cereals as their staple foods. This is because these foods contain phytates, which bind Fe and Zn to form insoluble salts thus hindering their absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies of essential elements in food and diets are fundamental to the reduction of malnutrition, improvement of human welfare and resistance to disease. Results from these studies will provide information that can verify the nature of the nutrition problem within a society and the effectiveness of the specific solution or intervention. In this book Nuclear Techniques were applied to analyse staple foods for mineral contents, hair samples for essential and toxic elements and the measurements of radioactivity accumulations in the staple foods. Recommendations are made on methods of nutrition interventions.