With enormous human and natural resources potentials, Nigeria occupies a strategic position in the development of the African continent. The Niger Delta ravaging conflicts remains one of the biggest challenges of the democratic era since 1999, which is the main concern of this book. Through qualitative analysis and evaluation of the theory of grievance and collective action and that of social deprivation model, the book examines why the continued proliferation of militant groups in the Niger Delta area though, having a democratic government. The findings however, are that there seem to be no end in the near future to these conflicts and the proliferation of militia movements in the Niger Delta region. If issues such as neglect, deprivation and discrimination and resource control are not adequately taken care of there seem to be no ending to the crisis. The analysis sheds more light into lack of concrete developmental polices that further escalates the crisis in the region. It is therefore hoped that it becomes useful for professionals, international organizations and students of conflict management field and militant issues.