Labour relations in the sugar industry of Uttar Pradesh have been more or less similar as in other industries in the country. It is however influenced by certain factors, which are peculiar to this industry. The first is, being the largest organized agro-based industry of Uttar Pradesh; it provides direct employment to over 70,000 people and indirectly supports the livelihood of three million sugar cane growers. Because of this large number of employees, a study of labour relations particularly emerging during the present era of reforms assumes significance. Secondly, the industry comprises of sugar mills in three sectors, viz. public, private and cooperative. In certain sector there is multiplicity of unions and in others there is paucity of unions. As a result the employees are not able to exert pressure on management as well as government to further their interests. It is in this context that a study of emerging labour relations in the sugar industry of Uttar Pradesh has been planned. Moreover, it has been recognized that regional studies could provide a better picture of the labour relations of a country.