Modern fishing is one of the most energy intensive methods of food production. Motorised and mechanised fishing operations are dependent on fossil fuels, which are non-renewable and limited. Fossil fuels produce increased levels of carbon dioxide in atmosphere contributing to green house effect and other pollutants which are detrimental to the environment and human health. Green house effect leads to irreversible climatic and oceanographic changes. Spiralling oil prices may severely affect the economic viability of fishing as a means of food production. The need for fishing industry to become energy-smart to cope with the rising trends of fuel prices and to ensure fish availability at accessible prices has been highlighted in recent years. In this context, energy analysis of fish harvesting systems and evaluation of approaches for energy conservation gain great importance. In this treatise, energy requirements of a range of fish harvesting systems are discussed along with approaches for energy conservation in fishing operations.