This book analyzes the cooperation potential and institutional feasibility of regional integration in the Mediterranean region. Inspired by Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet, it establishes energy and environment as the new “Coal and Steel”, the sectorial pillars of an ambitious Mediterranean Union. The argument defended is that both European and Mediterranean countries face environmental adaptation challenges and energy security concerns that are too complex for the rigid scope of nation states and which must be addressed from a supranational perspective. Such a Mediterranean Union would unleash economic growth potential through the implementation of a Green New Deal and address the most basic societal needs such as access to water and affordable energy. As Mediterranean countries experience an historical and uncertain wave of democratization, sustainable economic development is a sine qua non condition to achieve long term democracy. An ambitious supranational cooperation framework on environment and energy, such as the one defended in this book, is essential for sustained democratization in the region.