Energy consumption in any country is directly correlated to its industrialization, economic strength and the life-style of its citizens. Although, energy consumption in India has increased several fold in the post independence era, its per capita average energy consumption level is far below that of most of developing and developed countries. The author has attempted to analyze the experience of the three largest developing countries in the world by land area, namely, China, Brazil and India, in energy exploitation. They have also discussed various limitations of fossil fuels including their adverse effect on the environment and biodiversity. Against this background, the authors have tried to develop a viable energy scenario for India which places paramount importance on self sufficiency and energy security.