The rise of globalization and the trade in natural resources have progressively included Sub-Sahara African countries. The energy importing countries of the EU and China seek to increase their level of energy security, while the energy exporting countries of Sub-Sahara Africa are seeking to take advantage of the increase in exports in order to increase their economic development. The resource endowments, not only hold the opportunity of accelerating growth and increasing energy security, but if ill managed it can potentially create unbalanced economic growth and consequently socio-economic instability in the energy exporting countries. The purpose of this book is, to map and examine the intertwined policies of the international trade in energy, and more specifically the strategic policy directions, means and methods utilized by the EU and China, in their resource endowments in Sub-Sahara Africa. This helps to understand how the policy directions affect the level of energy security, while at the same time taking into account the consequences and opportunities the resource endowments have on sustainable development in the exporting countries.