Improvements to housing, infrastructure and physical environmental conditions have been the focus of previous approaches adopted to tackle the issues in deprived communities. However, such methods have been ineffective. Slums return to their previous derelict state only a few years after improvement projects, as the real issues are not properly addressed. Although the literature calls for an integrated approach, which will not only consider housing and infrastructure, but will also take into account communities’ social and economic needs, it is still not achieved in practice. This book presents the argument that slum improvement requires a holistic and systematic approach. It therefore explores ways of integrating the principles of social capital and local economic development into low-income settlement improvement processes, while generating environmental quality. It recognises the importance of the various levels of relationships that exist between these three aspects and suggests ways to maximise them in the improvement process. Drawing from an empirical study conducted in Nigeria, a framework for community development is proposed.