Our Earth supports about 10 million species of plants and animals, which have been the result of 3 billion years of evolution involving mutation, recombination and natural selection. The book "Environment and Biodiversity" provides a comprehensive and critical review of the work done on different areas of the subject. The book contains eight chapters, which include information on the detail investigations of the biodiversity of Sunderbans; biodiversity and bio-functional use of aquatic weeds; Study of wild legumes for sustainable plant productivity; comprehensive account or water pollution, especially river pollution; Use of higher plants for the control of the plant diseases; Use of botanical tools for the post-harvest management of the fruits; Cyanobacterial toxins, their ecology, health hazards and management. Different issues regarding the benefits and application of the biodiversity in different aspect of life has been explored. Important factors responsible for deteriorating the environment quality have been highlighted. Negligence of the environmental issues even by the government machinery has been pointed out.