This primer "Environmental Biology and Conservation in Eastern Africa" is written as an introductory resource conservation course for undergraduate students in eastern Africa.It outlines a variety of global, regional and local resource and environmental issues covering a range of topics in conservation and natural resources management, but with a special emphasis on biodiversity. The book starts by describing the basic principles and concepts of ecology. The thrust of the book is that humans must adopt an attitude that seeks cooperation, rather than dominance, with nature. Humans are part and parcel of nature from where we derive our livelihoods. Ecosystem goods and services are keys to our survival; and this means that we need to take an ecosystem approach in using nature’s resources, especially biodiversity. We must respect the rights of other species to exist and live alongside us. The book ends on how nations and society can cooperate to conserve and have a sustainable use of nature’s resources.