Many organizations, researchers and authors underscored the importance of environmental protection and conservation of the natural resource base for national development. This requires the incorporation of environmental dimensions into the process of development. It is important to make choices and decisions that will eventually promote sound development by understanding the environment functions. An increasing number of developing countries are also accepting the principle of environmental screening of development projects at the planning stage and hence are looking for guidelines to environmental impact assessments. Many multi- and bilateral agencies stipulate environmental impact assessments of proposed developments as a condition for lending, technical assistance and development support. It is in this context that this book is prepared to raise awareness and develop understanding of environmental impact assessment of development programs or projects. Therefore, it will be helpful, among others, for project analysts, academic scholars, students, and policy makers.