China is the world first SO2 and CO2 emitter due to its heavy reliance on coal, which represents more than 60 percent of its energy mix. This already has tremendous implications on a local, regional and global scale. Not only pollution hampers agricultural productivity (regional pollution) or increases asthma or cancer (local one) but now, it can change the climate and conditions in which people live. Therefore, there is an urgent need for decisive actions bringing the energy sector back on sustainable tracks. This book offers (i) a description of the environmental impact of rising energy use in China, (ii) a discussion on the notion of environmentally sustainable development and most importantly (iii) argues that the window of opportunity is not closed yet. The analysis sheds some light on abstract and theoretical concept (sustainable development, environmental economics) as well as applied energy economics and should be of interest to anyone (students, professionals, policy-makers, scholars) interested in energy/environmental economics.