Bovine tuberculosis is zoonotic, chronic infectious disease of cattle caused by intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium bovis characterized by progressive granulomatous lesions or tubercle in the lung tissues, lymph nodes and other organs. The disease has both economic and public healthy importance. The book contains introduction, literature review and case study. The introduction describes cause, source of infection, prevalence, public health importance and economic impact of Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia. The literature review intended to provide an in depth information on the etiology, pathogenesis, mode of transmission, potential risk factors, geographical distribution, diagnostic modalities, prevention and control measures of Bovine tuberculosis both in animals and humans separately. Case study on assessment of the epidemiology and public health importance of Bovine Tuberculosis using comparative intradermal tuberculin test, post-mortem examinations, bacteriological analysis, molecular typing and questionnaire survey was included. The authors hoped the book would provide information on the epidemiology and public health significance of bovine tuberculosis to all stakeholders.