A major shift is taking place across the globe in the burden of CVD; this ‘transition’ includes the emergence of Stroke, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) in developing economies. In India, rapid economic growth and urbanisation coupled with increased life expectancy has greatly expanded the population at risk of mortality and morbidity from chronic diseases, including CVD. The rise of CVD in India underscores the imperative need to develop appropriate and effective prevention policies and programmes. However,informed policies and programmes require sound data on the epidemiology of the disease burden,which is currently inadequate. Not surprisingly,these data are often met with skepticism. This literature review aimed to study the epidemiology and the epidemiological transition of CVD in India. A comprehensive review of published and unpublished studies on Stroke,CHD and PAD was conducted and findings related to incidence,prevalence, mortality,modifiable risk factors and the epidemiological transition are described. This information will be especially useful to policy makers,development agencies, non-government organizations,academia and researchers.