Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. According to WHO Report 2004, they account for almost 60% of deaths and 47% of the global burden of disease. In India, estimated deaths due to non-communicable diseases were double than those from communicable diseases. A progressive rise in the disease pattern of NCD foretells a serious public health issue. The major risk factors for non-communicable diseases are tobacco and alcohol abuse, a sedentary lifestyle, and an unhealthy diet. It is believed that about half of non-communicable disease-related premature deaths could be prevented through healthy diet, regular physical activity and by avoiding tobacco and alcohol. This report marks an important milestone in surveillance activities for NCDs in the country. The results would be useful for planning and monitoring an effective response in a coordinated manner by the Government. It should also stimulate further analysis and research in the area.