In recent decades, Vietnam has made considerable changes in its institutional system, especially in intellectual property rights and science technology. However, the implementation of this change needs further attentions. Recognizing the importance of establishing a roadmap between the desired outcomes and the country’s current stage in intellectual property rights and science technology, this book provides a scheme to measure innovative capacity of Vietnamese manufacturing firms based on the mapping innovation process. The assessment of this innovative capacity should be seen together with the national innovative system and appropriation scheme. With an attempt to perform an assessment on innovation capacity of Vietnamese firms, the patenting cost and patent quality of Vietnam are compared with that of fast developing ASEAN countries. In consideration of the better industry standards and frameworks, the mechanism of handling infringement in Vietnam is discussed with reference to standards and practices in USA, France and some countries in the Asian region. Finally, insights and recommendations are provided to assist policy makers in making better decisions.