The emerging exigencies and increasing emphasis on competitiveness in the contemporary business environment, place greater demands on the HR function to deliver on its many (but sometimes unattainable) promises. This puts profound pressures on the HR practitioner, who must balance personal values and beliefs with organisational and societal values, ethics and expectations. Therefore HR, as a matter of professional responsibility must effectively balance these often competing demands of all stakeholder groups whilst at the same time, not compromising professional standards – a demand that leaves HR practitioners in a delicate and sometimes precarious ethical position that can lead to serious dilemmas. It is against this backdrop that this work critically examines and illustrates some of the ethical dilemmas that confront HR practitioners in contemporary times. The analysis highlights practicable strategies for tackling some of these dilemmas in the workplace. It is argued that most of the dilemmas in HR practice arise as a result of prevailing organisational policies, culture and overall business strategy, which in turn, give rise to the overall ‘ethical climate'of an organization.