Nation states as dominant political structures in Latin America are facing huge challenges as they undergo a process of declining hegemony. As actors in the current scenario of political crisis, the indigenous people insurgence in Bolivia and, more generally, in Latin America, bring forward singular outcomes. For the first time in more than five centuries, the current president of Bolivia has an indigenous background. In order to understand the previous circumstances that made possible this important political change, this book offers a vivid image of how this process took place at different scales, taking advantage of a multidimensional approach, including a case study on the crisis of the state rural school within an indigenous territory. This book should interest social scientists concerned with the socio-political and cultural processes taking place in the Andean region.