The book describes a protocol to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity in popular animal models along with biochemical and molecular pharmacological investigations. The present work evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ruta graveolens leaves (RG–M) in various in vivo and in vitro models. For the anti-inflammatory activity evaluation, RG-M was administered by the oral route (p.o.) in carrageenan–induced paw edema model and by the intraperitoneal route (i.p.) in exudative inflammation model. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes was also investigated. In vitro antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Endogenous antioxidant status was further screened by ferric reducing ability of plasma model. The extract showed maximum inhibition of carrageenan – induced edema and in exudative inflammation model, significant reduction in leukocyte migration and protein exudation were observed. RG–M also revealed inhibition of COX–1 and COX–2 as well as 5–LOX. Antioxidant activity was found to be significant along with improved endogenous antioxidant status.