ABSTRACT The present study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the people reside in the south-east part of Rajasthan, India. The field survey was conducted in four selected areas of Rajasthan by performing interview through structured questionnaire with selected informants, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. 30 animal species were recorded and they are used for 45 different ethnomedicinal purposes. Of the total 30 animal species reported 18 (60%) included in IUCN red data list. Many protected animal species like peacock (Pavo cristatus), sambhar (Cervus unicolor), Spiny–tailed lizard (Uromastyx hardwickii), and collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) are also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.