The book analyzes the status of both European and Bulgarian labour markets in regards to the effects of the current crisis on the labour supply and demand and employment structure. Further it examines anti-crisis policies implemented by EU member countries as a means to mitigate the negative effects of the current global crisis on the labour markets. The study examines the scale of the crisis and the magnitude of its effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters characterizing the labour markets in EU countries and Bulgaria. The book comments on the effects of the short-term policies for overcoming the initial crisis-induced shocks. It underlines the palliative characteristic of those measures and the need for a modern transition towards structural policies. The combination of short-term anti-crisis measures and substantial structural changes is a successful strategy for restructuring the labour markets. Thus, a higher labour productivity and higher competitiveness and dynamic economic growth will be achieved.