Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) is an annual legume which is also known as peanut, earthnut, monkey-nut and goobers. It is the thirteenth most important food crop and fourth most important oilseed crop of the world. India is one of the largest producers of oilseeds in the world and this sector occupies an important position in the agricultural economy. Groundnut crop is grown in more than 100 countries in the world. Due to fungal transmission from field and poor storage activities, groundnut seeds are invaded by number of mould species. This book tries to acquire knowledge on effect of provenance on seed quality characteristics initially as well as during storage.