Replacing missing teeth with osseointegrated implants can be regarded as the most significant breakthrough in the dental profession. Titanium is the implant material of choice for use in dental and orthopaedic applications because of its osseointegration ability. The stable oxide that forms readily on titanium surfaces was reported to contributes to its excellent biocompatibility. The nature of the oxide (thickness, porosity and crystallinity) also affect in vivo performance. However, it was also found that bone response to implant surface was dependent on the chemical and physical properties of titanium surfaces thereby affecting implant success.Bone formation around an implant is a complex process, and it is not fully understood. Apart from patient metabolism, physicochemical and topographical surface characteristics are some of the most influential factors in the improvement of osseointegration. The mechanical interlocking of micro and nano-irregularities with the tissue plays an important role in bioactivity.