Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2011, 1.4 million people died due to TB and there were an estimated 8.7 million new cases. The current guidelines of the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease specify that the essential step in the investigation of patients who are suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis should be microscopic examination of sputum samples. Sputum smear microscopy with Hot Ziehl Neelsen (HZN) and Rapid AFB cold (RAC) staining has been the primary method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in low and middle income countries, where nearly 95% new TB cases and 98% mortality occur due to TB. It is a simple, rapid and inexpensive technique which is highly specific in areas with a very high prevalence of tuberculosis. It also identifies the most infectious patients and is widely applicable in various populations with different socio-economic levels. Smear Microscopy is an integral part of the global strategy for TB control.