Infertility can be defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy within one year of regular unprotected intercourse. A specific male or female factor can be identified in approximately 80% of couples. Advances in the understanding of the causes of infertility have facilitated the development of increasingly complex diagnostic tools. The accurate detection of underlying reproductive abnormalities helps to guide management decisions and maximize treatment outcomes. A basic evaluation for infertility may be grouped into three main categories: semen analysis, assessment of ovulation, uterine and tubal evaluation. Uterine and tubal structures may be visualized using a variety of techniques, including hysterosalpingography, transvaginal sonography, sonohysterography, laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current investigations and diagnostic interventions for the evaluation of infertility along with their indications and use; and also identifies areas for future research.