Epidemiological aspects of buffalo mastitis was evaluated to assess the cause and characterize the California mastitis test (CMT),somatic cell count (SCC), electrical conductivity (EC) values and bacteriological analysis for defining buffalo milk. Analysis of EC value in the milk revealed the presence of mastitis and the cut-off values remains 3.7 mS/cm. The coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were the predominant organisms associated with subclinical mastitis and CNS and Coliforms in clinical mastitis. In addition, antibiotic sensitivity of mastitis-causing pathogens against seven antibiotics was evaluated. These findings provide a fundamental basis for evaluating potential milk quality control and buffalo mastitis problems. Present investigation provides valuable guidelines for better management decisions and can set up the suitable diagnostic tests for buffalo herds in order to improve the hygienic quality of milk. This book contributes to the planning of effective milk quality control program for the government and non-government agencies. It is useful for the field veterinarians, students, scientists involved in dairy sectors, and further research in udder health & hygiene.