Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing new field of research and is emerging as one of the key technologies of the 21st Century. This technology can be simply explained as any technology performed on a nanoscale (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter). One of the main purposes of this book is to understand the nanotechnology, characteristics of nanomaterials and production methods. Nanotechnology is receiving considerable attention by governments, universities and companies around the world. Worldwide interest and investment in nanotechnology R&D have grown steadily because it is seen as a strategic technology for the future economy of the world. Additionally several developing countries have also launched nanotechnology initiatives in order to strengthen their capacity and sustain economic growth. Turkey is among these developing countries. Like the other not extremely high developed countries Turkey needs to invest substantial research effort and to support research and development in the area of nanotechnology.