Over the past few decades there has been an explosion in the amount of technologies created and used for language instruction, including various options for distance learning courses. This modernization has introduced a variety of distance education options, which utilize computer-based technologies and the Internet to offer blended learning courses and online learning courses. As a result of these technological developments and the flexibility that they enable, colleges and universities nationwide have begun offering more distance learning language courses as an alternative to traditional face-to-face language courses. Therefore, this book aims to examine and describe the students’ processes of online language learning while utilizing an activity theoretical case study approach. The subsequent analysis provided in this book offers insight to the mental and social processes of online language learners. As such, this book should be useful to educational professionals who are involved in creating and teaching online language courses.