In this book, China’s internationalization of higher education (HE) will be explained from a structural realist perspective. The object of the study is aimed at theory development, applying a case that lies usually outside of the explanatory sphere of a theory in order to advance it. The conclusion of the thesis is that a distinct explanation of the internationalization process is possible within a realist framework, providing us with a new perspective to understanding the internationalization of higher education – even though further studies are necessary. The thesis is structured into five parts, the concepts of power, the theory of neo-realism, the methodological framework, the testing of my hypothesis, and finally, the conclusion. With regards to importance of each chapter, the crucial elements are the conceptual and theoretical considerations. Thus, the paper followed a classical design and provided a logical build up.