The objectives of this thesis are: 1) To trace the manner in which liberalisation has resulted in major changes in the structure and orientation of the Indian economy. 2) To enquire into the relationship between export oriented policy and the environment. The theoretical background to the thesis is drawn from the literature on international trade and the effects of structural adjustment. The arguments in support of and against market-friendly and export- oriented policies are examined in considerable detail. An important point analyszed concerns the effects of the globalisation-liberalisation model on food security and the environment.