Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria is a major cause of childhood mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the factors that play a role in It''spathogenesis is essential for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Fc gamma receptor III (Fc? RIII) on monocytes/macrophages may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia (SMA) by promoting phagocytosis of IgG-coated uninfected red cells and by allowing the production of TNF-? and nitric oxide (NO) upon cross-linking by immune complexes (ICs). However, phagocytosis via complement receptor 3 (CR3) suppresses pro-inflammatory monocyte functions such as NO production. Therefore, the expression levels of these receptors on monocytes/macrophages may influence degree of stimulation and determine individuals'' susceptibility to severe malaria. This study examined the expression of Fc?RIII and CR3 on monocytes of children with severe malarial anaemia, cerebral malaria, and their age and gender-matched uncomplicated malaria controls by flow cytometry.