With growing recognition of the possibility of climate change and clear evidence of observed changes in climate during 20th century, an increasing emphasis on extreme rainfall events (ERE) and its regional impact has come to forefront of the scientific community. Climate-induced changes in hydrological conditions are expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of future ERE across Asia. Apart from concepts, definition, and impact of ERE, this book aims at giving an insight into the flood disaster trend in South Asian region (SAR) between 1960 and 2008; and meteorological drought across Orissa, India between 1901 and 2002. It is observed that flood events across SAR increased four to six folds between 2000 and 2008, when compared to those in 1970s. It was also seen that India is more vulnerable to flood events with respect to other SAR countries. The Orissa case study reveals that Rayagada is a highly drought prone district. ArcView GIS 3.2 Software was used to map the drought prone districts. ‘No-regret'' adaptation strategies considering the social, economical, physical, and environmental components have been suggested to cope with the consequences of ERE.