The transition off Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) can be a critical period for a family and one which can result in risk of child maltreatment for children. This study examined the experiences of over 18,000 families that exited TANF during a four-year period (1999 to 2002) and the factors that influenced subsequent child maltreatment. Families that experienced an involuntary exit from TANF, such as a sanction or time limits, were at increased risk of a child maltreatment investigation and risk of a substantiated finding of maltreatment. Furthermore, mothers with greater employment earnings were at reduced risk of alleged maltreatment and of substantiated maltreatment. Implications for policy and practice are examined.