Malnutrition can lead to increases in mortality, morbidity, lowers labour productivity and reduces school performance. Children below five years of age are the most vulnerable to malnutrition. The study was conducted to identify causes of recurrence of malnutrition among children below five years of age in Kiroka village in Rural Morogoro, Tanzania. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and morbidity were 43%, 13%, 3%, and 87%, respectively. Nutritional status of children is affected by both inadequate and quality of food, improper feeding practices, level of education of mother, household size, marital status and disease infections. Generally, children were more susceptible to malnutrition as age increased. Only 3% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. About 39% of the children started complementary feeding when they were two weeks old. The findings are importance to nutritional stakeholders. This book provides recommendations for areas of effective intervention and elsewhere with similar conditions.